During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC beneath the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Prior to the Games 107 athletes tested positive for banned substances and were not allowed to compete. In the early twentieth century, many Olympic athletes began using medication to improve their athletic skills.
The IOC has allowed the formation of National Olympic Committees to represent individual nations. These do not meet the strict necessities for political sovereignty that different worldwide organisations demand. As a result, colonies and dependencies are permitted to compete at Olympic Games, examples being territories corresponding to Puerto Rico, Bermuda, and Hong Kong, all of which compete as separate nations regardless of being legally a part of another nation. The present model of the Olympic Charter allows for the institution of recent NOCs to represent nations that qualify as “an impartial State recognised by the worldwide neighborhood”.